You can't expect people to answer you right away when you send them a written message. They might be busy, they might be too tired to answer, they might haven't taken any decision yet and so one. Unless you are sending a message to one of your employees during work hours, this person doesn't owe you their time. And responding to someone is something that takes time, no matter how small the message is.
That being said, asking for an answer after a reasonable time, does seem... reasonable.
I will advise against a question where you already know the answer (and the other person know you know), like: "did you get my message". This might sound aggressive to the person you are talking to (it does to me).
What I would suggest instead would be more like this:
Did you get some time to think about my message?
Be careful to not use this if your previous message didn't need thinking. As OP pointed out, it will probably be seen as sarcastic. Instead, I suggest using that:
I know you might be busy, but if you could just take some time to answer to my previous message, I would be grateful.
I know you might be busy, but I'm still very interested in X, so if you could just take some time to answer to my previous message, I would be grateful.
If they answer by saying they are sorry, but they really don't have time right now, you can ask them when they think they would (and add something at the beginning of the message like, "it's not to put pressure on you, but...").
In all those cases, you show that you have respect for the other person's time, that you are considerate, and you know they might have more important things to do than respond to you. Since you are considerate, the other person will probably be more willing to respond to you (and respond in a favorable manner). I know that I will (and I sometimes take a really looooong time to answer).
Edit, additional backup:
I am someone who often takes quite some time to respond to a message. Sometimes it's not an issue but sometimes it is.
The other day, my aunt asked me to send her a list of the t-shirt and books I wanted for Christmas. I said "ok", but then I didn't send her the list (I didn't think there was any hurry since Christmas was still in one month and a half).
After a few days, she messaged me again, saying that she needed the information before the X of December because she will be really busy afterward and wouldn't have time to buy the gifts.
Since I now had a deadline (and knew why it was so urgent for her to have the information), I was able to motivate myself and successfully send her the list the last day of the deadline.
If the question is more a way to make conversation (for example with a friend) and you don't really need the answer, I suggest to just drop it. It is not very pleasant to be ignored by a friend, but it seems this friend doesn't have that much time for you. He/she may have some but obviously less than you, and so you will need someone else to spend time with when this friend isn't available.
This being said, you can still try to "revive the conversation" (not sure that's English) with your friend. Wait a couple of days and, if you friend hasn't responded to you, just send him a "random text" like a smile, a "Hey" or a "What's up?". With any luck, your friend will then have some time and respond to you. If not, you will just have to move on.