I don't know what's going on with your dad, how new this is, if there are any other stressors in his life. It may be that your adulthood and impending independence is a threat to him. After all, he's always been your father and he's used to you needing him/his counsel/etc.
If nothing has changed, and nothing you've tried calms him down, you need to set a boundary. Boundaries are important for healthy relationships.
As an adult with a mind, you're allowed to have your own opinions. Refuse to have an argument with him. It's actually possible. It costs you something, but it's possible.
Next time he wants to "discuss" something you know is volatile, tell him calmly that you won't talk about that subject anymore. You want to convey that you still respect your father, so this has to be done with care.
Dad, I love you. I agree with a lot of what you have to say, but not everything. And because I love and respect you, It hurts me when we get into these huge arguments. So, I'm not going to discuss (x) with you anymore. I hope you understand that it's not because I don't respect your opinion. I do. It's just that we don't agree on everything, and I don't want to fight any more.
There's not a lot of things to come back on this with, but he'll probably find something if he's feeling negative. If he does come back with an argumentative statement or an accusation, repeat some variant of the same statement. Repeat until he stops, or you get up and move to a different part of the house.
Do this every time a particular subject comes up. Not most of the time, not when you're too tired to talk, but every time. Eventually the behavior will change.
I said it will cost you. You won't be able to have as many discussions with your dad as before. You will have to remove yourself even if it's inconvenient. You'll have to deal with his resistance. But if you keep the message the same, it should eventually work with most people. And you will both be in a better place.